Location: Central Asia
Capital: Ashgabat
Population (2012):  5,054,828
Surface area: 488,100 sq km
Currency: Turkmen Manat
GDP per capita (2011): US $ 5,042
Economy – Overview: Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and sizeable gas and oil resources. The two largest crops are cotton, most of which is produced for export, and wheat, which is domestically consumed. Although agriculture accounts for roughly 10% of GDP, it continues to employ nearly half of the country’s workforce. Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton export revenues to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. From 1998-2005, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by an average of roughly 15% per year from 2003-08, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. New pipelines to China and Iran, that began operation in early 2010, have given Turkmenistan additional export routes for its gas, although these new routes have not offset the sharp drop in export revenue since early 2009 from decreased gas exports to Russia.
President BERDIMUHAMEDOW unified the country’s dual currency exchange rate, ordered the redenomination of the manat, reduced state subsidies for gasoline, and initiated development of a special tourism zone on the Caspian Sea. Although foreign investment is encouraged, numerous bureaucratic obstacles impede international business activity.
Human Development Index ranking (2012): 102 out of 186
Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) (2011): US $ 38 million
Top Three Donors of gross ODA: United States, Turkey, Arab Agencies
FDI inflows (2012): $ 3,159million
Total External Debt (2011): US $ 445 million
External debt stock (% of GNI) (2011): 2
Merchandise exports (2011): US$ 13,000 million
Terms of trade index (2012): 239.1
HIPC Position (2013): Not eligible
United Nations Membership date: 2 March 1992
New York Mission:
Address: Permanent Mission of Turkmenistan to the United Nations
866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 424, New York, N.Y. 10017
Telephone: (212) 486-8908
Telefax: (212) 486-2521
e-mail: turkmenistan@un.int
Correspondence: English
National holiday: 27 October, Independence Day