Fiji

Region: Oceania-Melanesia

Capital: Suva

Population: 903,207 (July CIA 2014 est.)

Surface area: 18,274 sq km

Currency: Fijian dollar (FJD)

GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity US $4,900 (2013 CIA est.)

Background:
Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in May 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Re-elected in May 2006, QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA, who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Since taking power BAINIMARAMA has neutralized his opponents, crippled Fiji’s democratic institutions, and initially refused to hold elections. In 2012, he promised to hold elections in 2014. (CIA 2014)

Economy – Overview:
Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports, remittances from Fijians working abroad, and a growing tourist industry – with 400,000 to 500,000 tourists annually – are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji’s sugar has special access to European Union markets but will be harmed by the EU’s decision to cut sugar subsidies. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity but is not efficient. Fiji’s tourism industry was damaged by the December 2006 coup and is facing an uncertain recovery time. In 2007 tourist arrivals were down almost 6%, with substantial job losses in the service sector, and GDP dipped. The coup has created a difficult business climate. The EU has suspended all aid until the interim government takes steps toward new elections. Long-term problems include low investment, uncertain land ownership rights, and the government’s inability to manage its budget. Overseas remittances from Fijians working in Kuwait and Iraq have decreased significantly. Fiji’s current account deficit peaked at 23% of GDP in 2006, and declined to less than 12% of GDP in 2013. (CIA, 2014)

Major Export Commodities: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil

Remittances inflows: US $191 million (World Bank 2012 est.)

Human Development Index 2013 ranking: 96 out of 186 countries (UNDP 2013)

Official Development Assistance and Major Development Partners:
Net ODA US $107,340,000 (OECD 2012).
Major development partners: Australia, Japan, E.U. New Zealand, UNDP

Total External Debt: US $779.9 million (31 December 2013 CIA est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth: 72.15 years (CIA 2014)

Environmental Indicators:
Endangered Species (as a % of all species): 13.1
Forested Area (percentage of land area): 55.5
CO2 Emissions (tonnes per capita): 1.5
(UNDP 2013)

United Nations Membership Date: 13 October 1970

New York Mission:
Permanent Mission of the Republic of Fiji to the United Nations
801 Second Avenue, 10th Floor
New York, N.Y.10017 USA
Telephone: 212-687-4130
Fax: 212-687-3963
E-mail: mission@fijiprun.org
Website: http://www.fijiprun.org

Sources:
CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov
World Development Indicators. World Bank www.worldbank.org
Development, Recipient Aid Charts. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. www.oecd.org
Human Development Report 2013.United Nations Development Programme. www.undp.org

Image of Flag and Map copyright of Wikimedia Commons

Updated January 2015