Selected Relevant Publications and Online Resources
Reports by UN-OHRLLS
- EURO-ASIA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Report of UNESCAP/UN-OHRLLS/UNECE Euro-Asian Regional Midterm Review of the Implementation of the Vienna Programmed of Action for LLDCs for the Decade 2014-2024 (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNECE, 2019)
- EURO-ASIA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Background Report: Improving Transport Connectivity, International Trade and Trade Facilitation for Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNESCAP and UNECE, 2019)
- EURO-ASIA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Background Report: Review of Progress made in structural economic transformation in Euro-Asian landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) (UN-OHRLLS, 2019)
- AFRICA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Report of UNECA/UN-OHRLLS African Region Midterm Review of the Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action for LLDCs for the Decade 2014-2024 (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNECA, 2019)
- AFRICA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Background Report: Improving Transport Connectivity, International Trade and Trade Facilitation for LLDCs in African Region (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNECA, 2019)
- LATIN AMERICA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Report of ECLAC/UN-OHRLLS Latin America Region Midterm Review of the Vienna Programme of Action for the Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014–2024 (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNECLAC, 2019) (also available in Spanish)
- LATIN AMERICA REGIONAL MIDTERM REVIEW 2019: Background Report: Midterm Review of the Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action for the Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024 in Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNECLAC, 2019) (also available in Spanish)
- Landlocked Developing Countries – Things to Know, Things to do (UN-OHRLLS, 2019)
This publication highlights the things to know and do to enhance the development prospects of the LLDCs.
Achieving SDG 7 in Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS in collaboration with UNIDO 2019)
This report provides action-oriented policy recommendations for LLDCs for the next 5 years as well as providing insights on the linkages of affordable and clean energy in LLDCs with the other SDGs.
This report provides insights into the progress made by the LLDCs on improving transit transport connectivity, structural economic transformation, trade facilitation and trade performance, the major achievements and constraints experienced and recommendations to further advance transport connectivity and improve the trade potential of the LLDCs.
OHRLLS 2018 Statistical Annex on Selected Indicators to Monitor the Vienna Programme of Action to accompany the Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024 (A/73/297). (UN-OHRLLS 2018)
The report has indicators and Statistics to monitor progress in the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action and progress made by landlocked developing countries towards achieving some of the Sustainable Development Goals.
- Financing Infrastructure in the Transport Sector in Landlocked Developing Countries: Trends, Challenges & Opportunities (UN-OHRLLS 2018)
This report provides a summary of the transport infrastructure challenges that Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) face and the trends in financing of transport infrastructure of LLDCs, and gives guidance on the available opportunities of funding and financing for meeting their infrastructure challenges.
- Global Report – Improving transit cooperation, trade and trade facilitation for the benefit of
the landlockeddeveloping countries: Current status and policy implications (UN-OHRLLS 2017)
This report reviews the status of transit cooperation, trade and trade facilitation for the benefit of the Landlocked Developing Countries. It identifies key achievements and constraints and suggests solutions required to address transit issues and scale up trade facilitation for the successful participation of the LLDCs in international trade and for their overall development. From the findings, it is clear that enhanced cooperation between the LLDCs and the transit countries is key to better integration of the LLDCs into the global markets. Such cooperation will create a win-win situation, since it is through multifaceted cooperation and smooth regional connectivity that they will be able to improve transit systems and transport infrastructure, enhance trade and government revenue and overall sustainable development.
- Improving Cooperation on Transit, Trade Facilitation and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN-OHRLLS 2017)
This is a summary Report of the High-level Euro-Asia Regional Meeting that was held in Ha Noi, Viet Nam, 7-9, March 2017. The reports highlights areas of how to improve cooperation between the LLDCs and the transit countries to increase their trade potential and achievement of the SDGs. It has a compilation of the lessons learnt, good practices, future policies, programmes and initiatives on how to improve transit cooperation, connectivity, trade and trade facilitation and strengthen the linkages between the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that the participants shared at the meeting. The report has key recommendations to enhance cooperation between the LLDCs and transit countries.
- Accelerating Sustainable Energy for All in Landlocked Developing Countries through Innovative Partnerships (UN-OHRLLS 2017)
This report has two parts: A report of the Senior Official’s Meeting on Accelerating Sustainable Energy for All in Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) through Innovative Partnerships that was held in Vienna, Austria on 24 and 25 October 2016; and the Background report that was prepared for the Senior Official’s meeting. The report highlights the need to scale up access to sustainable energy; close the rural-urban disparities in access to energy in LLDCs; increase the population that has access to clean and modern cooking energy; and promote greater use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. To achieve this, the report underscores that the LLDCs need to ensure that national sustainable energy policies and regulatory frameworks are strengthened to establish an enabling environment to encourage investment into the sector. Strengthened partnerships between all stakeholders are necessary to provide technology, financial and capacity building support, and knowledge and sharing of best practices and lessons learned. The report contains important Conclusions and Recommendations that were adopted at the end of the meeting in Vienna.
- Harnessing the Trade Potential of the Landlocked Developing Countries to Implement the Vienna Programme of Action and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN-OHRLLS, 2017)
This is a report of the Fifth Meeting of Trade Ministers of Landlocked Developing Countries held in Geneva, Switzerland from 23 to 24 June 2016. The publication is a compilation of written statements and summaries of PowerPoint presentations delivered during the Meeting. The Meeting stressed the importance of physical infrastructure development, structural economic transformation, the service sector, and enhanced international support. The Meeting resulted in the adoption of a Declaration that raises the issues crucial for successfully harnessing the trade potential of LLDCs to implement the
- Achieving Sustainable Transport in Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS, 2017)
This report identifies the persistent common challenges that the 32 landlocked developing countries face in their ambition to enhance economic growth, overcome poverty, and achieve sustainable development through greater international trade and business cooperation. This report highlights the importance of improved transport infrastructure and services in achieving these goals.
- Enhancing the Role of the Private Sector in the Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN-OHRLLS, 2017)
This is a report of the ECOSOC Forum on Financing for Development Follow-up side event on Enhancing the Role of the Private Sector in the Implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The report has two parts: a summary report of the side event held on 23 May 2017 at the UN Headquarters in New York,
- Landlocked Developing Countries – Things to Know, Things to do (UN-OHRLLS, 2016)
This publication highlights the things to know and do to enhance the development prospects of the LLDCs.
This is a report of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Group of LLDCs held on 22 September 2016 at the UN Headquarters in New York,
- Latin America Regional Report on Improving Transit Cooperation, Trade and Trade Facilitation for the Benefit of the Landlocked Developing Countries – Current Status and Policy Implications (UN-OHRLLS, 2016)
This report reviews the transit cooperation, transport infrastructure and trade facilitation issues facing LLDCs in the Latin America Region. The report identifies key achievements, remaining challenges and policy recommendations to address the
- Africa Regional Report on Improving Transit Cooperation, Trade and Trade Facilitation for the Benefit of the Landlocked Developing Countries – Current Status and Policy Implications (UN-OHRLLS, 2016)
This report reviews the status of transit issues in the region under four key thematic areas (i) the legal framework for transit cooperation, (ii) transit infrastructure development, (iii) international trade, trade facilitation, customs and border crossing procedures, and (iv) means of implementation. The report also identifies key successful cases and constraints and provides recommendations to address transit issues for the successful participation of the LLDCs in international trade and for their overall development.
- Asia Regional Report on Improving Transit Cooperation, Trade and Trade Facilitation for the Benefit of the Landlocked Developing Countries – Current Status and Policy Implications (UN-OHRLLS, 2016)
This report examines the current status of Asian LLDCs in terms of the hardware (infrastructure development) and software (legal framework, customs and border procedures etc) elements of the transit cooperation system. It reviews the state of LLDCs’ participation in international trade and the role of improved transit and trade facilitation in expanding trade between the LLDCs and their trading partners. It also looks at the constraints and challenges faced by the LLDCs in increasing their participation in international trade. The report analyses the key implementation constraints faced by the LLDCs including financing infrastructure development. The report provides recommendations and policy options for the greater integration of the LLDCs into regional and global growth processes.
- Botswana National Consultations on Mainstreaming of the Vienna Programme of Action Held 27th-29th October 2015 in Gaborone, Botswana (Republic of Botswana, UN-OHRLLS, 2015)
This is a report of Botswana national consultations on mainstreaming of the Vienna Programme of Action. The report has two parts: a report of the National Stakeholder Sensitization Workshop on the
- Report of the High-Level Forum held on 15 July 2015, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in the margins of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development (UN-OHRLLS, Government of Zambia, 2015)
This is a report of the High-Level Interactive Panel on Financing for Infrastructure Development and Regional Integration for the LLDCs that was held on 15 July 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in the margins of The Third International Conference on Financing for Development. The purpose of the meeting was to raise awareness on Vienna Programme of Action (
- Booklet on Landlocked Developing Countries prepared for the High-Level Meeting on the Follow-up to the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS, 2015)
This booklet provides statistical country profiles of the 32 LLDCs using data from the UNCTAD, the UNDP Human Development Report, and the World Bank.
- The Impact of Climate Change, Desertification and Land Degradation on the Development Prospects of Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS, 2015)
This study identifies LLDCs’ priority areas on climate change, land degradation and desertification that could be included in their new development agenda. In order to achieve this objective, the study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on LLDCs; reviews national, regional and international interventions which have been implemented in LLDCs; identifies best practices, lessons learnt and emerging opportunities; and proffers recommendations for inclusion in a new development agenda for LLDCs which will assist them to ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change, desertification and land degradation.
- High-Level International Workshop on the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Implications for Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS, Government of Mongolia and the International Think Tank for LLDCs, 2014)
This publication is composed of two parts. The first is the report of the High-Level International Workshop on the “WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Implications for LLDCs” held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2-3 June 2014. The second part of this publication is a background report prepared for the workshop entitled Assessment of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Implications for the LLDCs.
- Building Productive Capacities to Enhance Structural Transformation in Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS, 2014)
This report provides a detailed description of the main pillars of the productive capacity building framework for enhancing structural transformation in LLDCs and discusses how building capacity along these pillars will help address the structural challenges associated with LLDCs’ geography. The report also provides policy suggestions on how to structurally change the economy in the context of multiple competing priorities and limited resources.
- Perspectives on the priorities of a new development agenda for LLDCs (UN-OHRLLS, 2013)
Report of a Brainstorming Meeting held as part of the preparatory process for the Comprehensive 10 Year Review of the Implementation of the Almaty Programme of Action United Nations Headquarters, New York 20–21 March 2013.
- Development Costs of Landlockedness (UN-OHRLLS, 2013)
The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of
- Improving Trade and Transport for Landlocked Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS/World Bank, 2014)
Joint World Bank-United Nations report in preparation for the 2nd United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries. The publication provides a comprehensive
- Unlocking the trade potential of LLDCs (UN-OHRLLS, 2012)
Compilation of statements and presentations delivered at the High-Level Global Thematic Meeting on International Trade, Trade Facilitation and Aid for Trade.
- The Impact of the Global Financial and Economic Crises on the Development Prospects of the LLDCs (UN-OHRLLS, 2009)
This paper explores the likely challenges that the financial and economic crises pose for landlocked developing countries; the nature of these countries’ vulnerabilities to the crises; the response of relevant global and regional institutions to the crises; and the policy options open to these countries at the domestic level. In that respect, the critical importance of securing and improving access to the sea and the quality, cost and reliability of transportation networks
- The Transit Transport Situation in Africa, Asia and Latin America (UN-OHRLLS, 2008)
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the implementation of the Almaty Programme of Action as
- Landlocked countries in South America: transit transport challenges (UN-OHRLLS/ECLAC, 2008) English – Spanish
- Trade, Trade Facilitation and Transit Transport Issues for Landlocked Developing Countries (Government of Mongolia, in cooperation with UNDP, UN-OHRLLS, UNCTAD and the Mission of Paraguay in Geneva, 2007)
- Geography Against Development (UN-OHRLLS, 2006)
Links to the Reports of Our Partners
This review assesses the state of transport connectivity in Asia and the Pacific region and posits that sustainable freight transport cannot be attained in the absence of sustainable transport connectivity. It underscores that key drivers of the shift to sustainable freight transport are technology and innovation, private sector engagement and the enabling role of public policy as formulated at the national and regional levels.
This book takes stock of the infrastructure financing landscape in Asia and the Pacific, and proposes new strategic approaches and emphases to infrastructure financing, based on three complementary pillars: the SDGs principles that set good practices in all stages of infrastructure development; conducive enabling environment for infrastructure financing; private sector’s further engagement in infrastructure development.
- Landlocked developing countries in the Americas region – Connectivity challenges and opportunities – Bolivia (ITU,2018) (also available in Spanish)
Landlocked developing countries in the Americas region – Connectivity challenges and opportunities – Paraguay (ITU,2018) (also available in Spanish)
The reports review connectivity challenges and opportunities of the two Landlocked Countries (LLDCs) in Latin America: Bolivia and Paraguay. The reports suggest recommendations to improve connectivity efficiency and sustainability in these two LLDCs countries.
This report reviews the transport challenges and opportunities for Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and examines the situation of five LLDCs in Asia: Afghanistan, Bhutan, Lao PDR, Mongolia, and Nepal, in addition to the Central African Republic, which is an observer country to the Regional EST Forum in Asia.
World Investment Report (UNCTAD, 2018)
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows to the 32 landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) rose by 3 per cent in 2017, to $23 billion. This modest increase still left total flows to LLDCs almost 40 per cent below the peak in 2011. The Report shows that FDI to the most vulnerable countries remains fragile.
How can LLDCs Overcome the Plight of Land Locked-ness? (World Bank, 2018)
The report summarizes the key achievements of the World Bank Group (WBG) in helping Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) overcome their challenges. This report analyses the constraints and challenges faced by the LLDCs and provides the solutions to achieve sustainable development and enhance economic growth.
Africa’s Development Dynamics 2018 (OECD, African Union Commission 2018)
This report provides an overview of Africa’s development dynamics and its integration into the global economy.
The report presents the achievement of establishing the agreement on the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) signed on 21 March 2018 in Kigali. It is a key step to enhance African regional economic growth, and achieve sustainable development through
AfricanContinental Free Trade Area.
This report features a diverse selection of case studies illustrating the development of innovative finance in the region, and shines light on different mechanisms supported by governments across the region in the areas of impact investment and public finance for innovation.
This paper develops a framework to estimate infrastructure financing needs of the Asia-Pacific least developed countries (LDCs), landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS) by 2030, considering financial needs to close existing infrastructure gaps, keep up with growing demands for new infrastructure, maintain existing infrastructure and mitigate the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate-related risks.
- Urbanization And Industrialization For Africa’s Transformation (UNECA, 2017)
The report identifies and analyzes the drivers, enablers and policy levers for strengthening linkages between industrialization and urbanization. It shows that industrialization requires better functioning cities and systems of cities, which in turn require better performing industrialization processes. It stresses that African countries, under the right policy frameworks anchored in national development planning, can leverage the momentum of urbanization to accelerate industrialization for a more prosperous and equitable future.
- Macroeconomic Management for Poverty Reduction: Chad, Mali, Niger (World Bank, 2016)
This report is part of a series of reports aimed to discuss macroeconomic developments in
Multilateral Trade Negotiations and LLDCs: A handbook for negotiators and practitioners (International Think Tank for LLDC, 2016)
The handbook is aimed at introducing
- Trajectories for Sustainable Development Goals Framework and Country Applications (World Bank, 2016)
This book presents the Country Development Diagnostics Post-2015 framework, developed by the World Bank Group to assess the country-level implications of the post-2015 global agenda, as well as brief, “at-a-glance” applications of the framework to ten countries.
- Trade Facilitation And Development- Driving trade competitiveness, border agency effectiveness and strengthened governance (UNCTAD, 2016)
Trade facilitation reforms improve a country’s trade competitiveness and the effectiveness of border agencies. This present study conducted by UNCTAD identifies policies to help reap the full development-related benefits from trade facilitation reforms.
- Trade, Investment and Innovation – Trade performance of Asian landlocked developing economies: State of play and the way forward (ESCAP 2016)
Despite experiencing a decade of rapid economic and export growth, Asian land-locked developing countries (LLDCs) are still in a difficult position with regard to integration with the rest of the region and the global economy. This report examines the changes in trade structure and performance of Asian LLDCs. It also underscores the importance of global and regional cooperation efforts to assist those countries in enacting sound trade policies and strategies that put structural economic transformation at the centre of such efforts.
The 2016 World Trade Report examines the participation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade, how the international trade landscape is changing for SMEs, and what the multilateral trading system does and can do to encourage more widespread and inclusive SME participation in global markets
- Natural resources logistics in landlocked countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL, 2016)
This issue of the FALL Bulletin analyses natural resources logistics chains in Paraguay and the Plurinational State of Bolivia in the light of the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
High LevelMeeting Commique(OECD, 2016)
- Transformative Industrial Policy For Africa (OECD, 2016)
This report outlined the importance and development solution of industry policy for African countries. It reviewed the past experiences and theories of industry policy in Africa and suggested the new
Country Profiles is a series published annually by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). The aim of the series is to disseminate country- and region-specific policy analyses and recommendations for economic transformation, with an emphasis on promoting sustainable growth and social development, strengthening regional integration and facilitating development planning and economic governance. The present series is the result of the close collaboration of the subregional offices of ECA and the African Centre for Statistics. Specific contributions were provided by relevant programme areas of ECA, in particular, the Macroeconomic Policy Division, the Regional Integration and Trade Division, and the Social Development and Policy Division.
- Africa Regional Integration Index – Report 2016 (AUC, AfDB, ECA, 2016)
Africa’s Regional Integration Index is an action tool measuring the progress of how African countries are performing in integrating trade, regional infrastructure,
- Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII: Innovation, Competitiveness and Regional Integration (ECA, AUC, AfDB, 2016)
This report examines how the three elements of regional integration, innovation and competitiveness are interlinked. It explores the prospects for harnessing them within the framework of Africa’s normative regional integration development model oriented to foster
- Doing Business Regional Profile 2016: Landlocked Economies (World Bank Group, 2016)
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Landlocked Economies. It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the comparator regions.
- Rwanda Electronic Single Window Supports Trade Facilitation (Christian Nizeyimana from UNCTAD, Luc De Wulf from World Bank, 2015)
This report presents an overview of the Rwanda Electronic Single Window (ReSW) and its impact on trade facilitation including reduced clearance time, and decreased direct and indirect cost of international trade. This report also provides advice on further reducing time delays and facilitating seamless cross-boarder trade.
- Economic Development in Africa Report 2015 – Unlocking the Potential of Africa´s Services Trade for Growth and Development (UNCTAD, 2015)
This report examines some of the major policy issues that underlie Africa’s services’ sector and provides policy guidance on how services could contribute to Africa’s regional integration and generate inclusive growth and employment.
- Facilitating the Participation of Landlocked Developing Countries in Commodity Value Chains (UNCTAD, 2015)
The question in this UNCTAD report is, to what extent does the state of being landlocked keep LLDCs in the production and export of primary commodities? The present study argues that despite the challenges, the case for diversification and structural economic transformation remains more persuasive for LLDCs today than ever before. Empirical and historical evidence suggests that diversification, value addition and retention are key to attaining overall development objectives.
- Trade and Development Report 2015 – Making the international financial architecture work for development (UNCTAD, 2015)
This report reviews recent trends in the global economy and focuses on ways to reform the international financial architecture. It warns that with a tepid recovery in developed countries and headwinds in many developing and transition economies, the global crisis is not over, and the risk of a prolonged stagnation persists.
- Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade:
Stateof Play and The Way Forward for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP, 2015)
This publication features the results of the 2015 UNRCs Joint Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade implementation for the Asia-Pacific region and incorporates this information into an econometric analysis, estimating the impact of trade facilitation on trade costs.
- World Trade Report 2015 – Speeding up trade: benefits and challenges of implementing the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (WTO, 2015)
The 2015 World Trade Report is the first detailed study of the potential impacts of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) based on a full analysis of the final agreement text. The Report’s findings are consistent with existing studies on the scale of potential benefits from trade facilitation, but it goes further by identifying and examining in detail a range of other benefits from the TFA.
- World Investment Report 2015 (UNCTAD, 2015)
This yearly report by UNCTAD aims to inform global debates on the future of the international policy environment for cross-border investment. The report covers all aspects of Foreign Direct Investment, including details on the trends and statistics of FDI inflows to LLDCs.
- Interpreting Bargaining Strategies of Developing Countries-A Quantitative Approach (Valeria Costantini, Giorgia Sforna, Mariangela Zoli, SEEDS, 2015)
This paper examines the growing role played by developing countries in climate negotiations. By applying a cluster analysis, this paper attempts to investigate the role played by heterogeneity in specific characteristics of developing countries in forming bargaining coalitions in climate negotiations. They find that in order to maximize the likelihood of a successful climate agreement in the short term, it will be necessary to design differentiated supporting actions according to countries’ specific interests and weaknesses in order to equalize costs and benefits of mitigation policies and vulnerability to climate change.
- The Rights of Land-Locked States in the International Law: The Role of Bilateral/Multilateral Agreements (Endalcachew Bayeh, Social Sciences, Volume 4, Number 2, 2015)
The objective of this study is to examine the rights conferred on landlocked states by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 and the role of negotiating bilateral and multilateral agreements in the practical realization of those rights. The study delves into the condition of all land-locked states of the world in
- Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Is Landlockedness Destiny? (Ramesh C. Paudel, The Economic Society of Australia, 2015)
This paper examines the determinants of economic growth in developing countries within the standard growth regression framework, with special attention being paid to the experience of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs). The results confirm that
- Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Corridor Performance Measurement And Monitoring: A Forward-Looking Retrospective (Asian Development Bank, 2014)
This report describes how process-based corridor performance measurement and monitoring (CPMM) methodology captures data on the time and cost of moving freight within the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) region, particularly at border crossing points (BCPs), to spur operating efficiency, reduce bottlenecks along the CAREC corridors, and thus improve international and regional trade flows. Despite the challenges of measuring corridor performance in the CAREC context, efforts are being made to provide accurate and reliable indicators. The depth of data and the richness of information provided by CPMM—which has been used to measure CAREC corridor performance since 2009—will contribute to detailed and well-grounded
- Landlocked Developing Countries: Facts and Figures, 2014 (UNCTAD, 2014)
This publication was prepared as part of UNCTAD’s contribution to the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries in Vienna. It presents key economic, social and trade information on all 32 LLDCs with the aim of underpinning the dimension of their development challenges with facts and figures.
- The Potential of Aid for Trade to Improve Infrastructure and Logistics Performance of Landlocked Developing Countries of Latin America (Gabriel Perez-Salas, Azhar Jaimurzina, Gordon Wilmsmeier, UNECLAC, 2014)
This paper examines how Aid for Trade could be an important tool
- Connecting to Compete 2014: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (World Bank, 2014)
Logistics Performance Index (LPI) measures the on-the-ground efficiency of trade supply chains, or logistics performance. The LPI and its components help countries understand the challenges that they and their trading partners face in making their national logistics perform strongly.
- Trade and Transport Corridor Management Toolkit (Charles Kunaka and Robin Carruthers, World Bank, 2014)
This toolkit provides information and guidance on how to design, determine the components to include, and analyse the likely impact of corridor projects. It presents in a succinct form the experiences of the World Bank and other development agencies in assessing, designing, implementing, and evaluating the impact of trade and transport corridor projects.
- World Trade Report 2014 (WTO, 2014)
This report focuses on how the relationship between trade and development has changed since the start of the millennium, identifying four key trends which have altered the way that trade affects development outcomes. The four trends are accelerated economic growth in developing countries since the new millennium, the expansion of global value chains, the surge in agricultural and natural resource prices over the last decade, and the increasingly global nature of macroeconomic shocks. This report finds that while some developing economies have made significant progress in recent years, much still needs to be done to close the gap for many poor economies.
- Aid for Trade and Value Chains in Transport and Logistics 2014 (WTO/OECD, 2014)
This report examines data from both the WTO and the OECD, revealing trends in infrastructure, customs and border crossing procedures, private services and regulation, red tape, and governance. This report finds a clear case for donor countries, partner countries, and the private sector to continue to work together to improve the transport and logistics value chain, and help bring about the positive economic and social development outcomes it can support.
This Transit Handbook deals with various aspects of the operation of Customs transit
- Policies to Enhance Trade Facilitation in South Asia and Southeast Asia (Anthony Bayley, Asian Development Bank Institute, 2014)
A discussion of trade facilitation in the context of enhancing trading links between South and Southeast Asia, in a manner understandable to the non-specialist. Paper identifies the scope of trade facilitation and profiles the current overall situation in the two regions.
- A Review of International Legal Instruments: Facilitation of Transport and Trade in Africa (Jean Grosdidier de Matons, SSATP, 2014)
This publication reviews the legal instruments in Africa that facilitate transport and trade flows between countries and regions. This updated study, which finds 145 legal instruments in 2014 (up from 121 in 2004), was motivated for three reasons. First, African countries are increasingly cooperating, especially in the area of corridors, to achieve full connectivity, mobility and accessibility. Second, this new edition has been extended to cover the whole of the African continent, including the Maghreb, which was not in the previous inventory. Finally, air transport and associated agreements and conventions were added at the request of countries.
- Trade Policymaking in a Land-locked Developing Country: The WTO Review of Nepal (Kishor Sharma, The World Economy, 2014)
This paper assesses the Trade Policy Review of Nepal 2012. In doing so, the paper summarizes the report, updates some of its analysis to 2012/13, highlights its key findings, and points out some of the policy issues that deserve further attention.
- The Way to the Ocean: Transit Corridors Servicing the Trade of Landlocked Developing Countries (UNCTAD, 2013)
This work looks at selected East African transit corridors which provide access to seaports as gateways to link LLDCs with overseas trading partners and suggests complementary courses of action
- Quantitative Analysis of Road Transport Agreements (QuARTA) (Charles Kunaka, Virginia Tanase, Pierre Latrille, Peter Krausz, World Bank, 2013)
The publication proposes methodologies for identifying the defining characteristics of regional road transport agreements and the implications they may have on market integration. Its results identify general patterns about bilateral agreements on road freight transport and how they work in practice.
This guide explains the significance of the World Trade Organization (WTO), gives an overview of the main provisions of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can influence the way governments
- The Africa Infrastructure Investment Report 2013 (CBC, 2013)
This report outlines the infrastructure deficit and challenges, highlights models for financing the continent’s ambitious projects, and provides a sector-by-sector guide to the main priority areas, namely energy, transport, water and ICTs.
- Negotiating Against the Odds: A Guide for Trade Negotiators from Developing Countries (Emily Jones, Commonwealth Secretariat, 2013)
Draws on experiences of more than 100 developing country negotiators and insights of leading academic studies and brings together practical advice and lessons on ways to negotiate effectively with larger parties, and avoid common pitfalls.
This paper presents an overview of support by development partners as well as financial instruments that are promoting private investment for Africa’s infrastructure. This paper is largely based on responses from a questionnaire that was developed by the secretariats of the DAC and Investment Committee and sent to DAC participants in November 2010, with the questions consisting of: Members’ strategies for infrastructure in Africa, including mobilizing private investment; special considerations for fragile states, environment, regional approaches, and lessons from other developing regions; specific project activities for the enabling environment; application of principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness; and domestic
- Trade Facilitation Implementation Guide (UNECE, 2012)
This online resource presents a variety of concepts, standards and recommendations that can simplify trade throughout the international supply chain, sets out implementation approaches and methodologies, and introduces the available instruments for applying the facilitation measures under discussion at the WTO.
- The OSCE-UNECE Handbook of Best Practices – A Trade and Transport Facilitation Perspective (OSCE/UNECE, 2012)
This handbook provides concrete examples on how border crossing points can be made increasingly efficient and secure, and though it pays particular attention to road border crossing points, it also touches upon border crossing points along railways and at
- Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets (Jean-Francois Arvis, Graham Smith and Robin Carruthers, World Bank, 2011)
This book aims to help the policymaker and development community in general to understand the nature of the problems and policy dilemmas that landlocked countries face to trade with the rest of the World. It presents an important contribution to the existing literature, by focusing on a new conceptual framework that challenges the previous paradigm based on physical infrastructure and state-led access solutions, embodied in many treaties. Suggesting that the main access problems for landlocked countries occur in the territory of the transit country, this volume provides a new approach to understand the set of incentives that drive the political economy and shape the institutions governing goods’ transit along corridors. Overall, the policy levers available to overcome these barriers are based on universally applied principles, recognizing the need for re-engineering current transit regimes which have been implemented with little success outside Europe. A risk-approach to border control and technology use, along with trust building between private operators and public agencies, all point toward the need to encourage and formally recognize higher-quality trucking companies. Meanwhile, other modes of transportation represent an alternative to road transit, but they also entail disadvantages, suggesting that their role is likely to remain limited to niche segments, specific commodities and exceptional market circumstances.
- Trade Facilitation and Export Diversification (Allen Dennis, Ben Shepherd, The World Economy, 2011)
This paper shows that improved trade facilitation can help promote export diversification in developing countries. The authors find that 10 per cent reductions in the costs of international transport and domestic exporting costs (documentation, inland transport, port and customs charges) are associated with export diversification gains of 4 and 3 per cent, respectively, in a sample of 118 developing countries. Customs costs play a particularly important role in these results. Lower market entry costs can also promote diversification, but the effect is weaker (1 per cent). They also find evidence that trade facilitation has stronger effects on diversification in poorer countries. Results are highly robust to estimation using alternative dependent and independent variables, different country samples and alternative econometric techniques. The authors link these findings to recent advances in trade theory that emphasize firm heterogeneity, and trade growth at the extensive margin.
- Border Management Modernization (Gerard McLinden, Enrique Fanta, David Widdowson and Tom Doyle, Editors, World Bank, 2010)
Trade facilitation helps countries achieve national development objectives. It makes them more competitive, allowing goods and services to be traded on time and at low transaction cost. But many developing countries will be unable to take advantage of international trade opportunities unless they can go beyond the traditional reform agenda—almost exclusively dedicated to customs reform and hard infrastructure—and invest in areas where trade is most constrained. Facilitating trade may require reforming and modernizing border management institutions, changing transport regulation policy, and investing in infrastructure. A trade supply chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Locating the weakest links and addressing them through targeted development interventions has
- Integrating Landlocked Developing Countries into International Trading System through Trade Facilitation (Paras Khare and Anil Belbase, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade Working Paper Series, No. 84, 2010)
This study empirically investigates how the quality of trade facilitation (both
- The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability (Jean-François Arvis, Gaël Raballand and Jean-François Marteau
The Cost of Being Landlocked proposes a new analytical framework to interpret and model the constraints faced by logistics chains on international trade corridors. The plight of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) has naturally received special attention for decades, leading to a specific set of development priorities based upon the concept of dependence on the transit state. Therefore, the standard approach used to tackle the cost of being landlocked has been predominantly aimed at developing regional transport infrastructure and ensuring freedom of transit through regional conventions. But without sufficient attention given to the performance of logistics service delivery to traders, the standard approach is unable to address key bottleneck concerns and the factors that contribute to the cost of being landlocked. Consequently, the impact of massive investment on trade corridors could not materialize to its full extent. Based on extensive data collection in several regions of the world, this book argues that although landlocked developing countries do face high logistics costs, these costs are not a result of poor road infrastructure, since transport prices largely depend on trucking market structure and implementation of transit processes. This book suggests that high logistics costs in LLDCs are a result of low logistics reliability and predictability, which stem from rent-seeking and governance issues. The Cost of Being Landlocked will serve as a useful guide for
- Africa’s Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation (Vivien Foster and Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, World Bank Publications, 2010)
This study is part of the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic, a project designed to expand the world’s knowledge of physical infrastructure in Africa. This study goes over ten main findings that emerged as a result of extensive fieldwork in
- Trade Facilitation in WTO and Beyond (Shashank Priya, Discussion Paper No. 4, Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, 2010)
This paper starts out defining trade facilitation and provides an overview of trade facilitation in the literature. It then proceeds to define in more detail the evolution of trade facilitation in the WTO and provides an overview on the Doha Mandated, the Annex D Modalities and the negotiating process. The paper discusses the existing commitments and proposed amendments to the three GATT Articles and discusses other important issues such as Capacity Building and Special and Differential Treatment in the context of trade facilitation in the WTO. The paper concludes by providing an overview over where India stands.
- Freedom of Transit: Technical Note 8 (UNCTAD, 2009)
This technical note provides background information on GATT Article V and then provides an overview
- Clarifying Trade Costs: Maritime Transport and its Effect on Agricultural Trade (Jane Korinek and Patricia Sourdin, OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 92, 2009)
Maritime transport costs have a significant impact on
- Trade and transport facilitation assessment: A practical toolkit for country implementation (World Bank, 2010)
This practical tool identifies the obstacles to the fluidity of trade supply chains. Taking the perspective of service delivery to traders, the TTFA assessment is founded on facts and data collected through a series of meetings and interviews with the main public and private participants to these international supply chains. They include customs and other border agencies, transport regulators, freight forwarders, transport operators, ports, and others. The toolkit helps design plans of action to improve logistics performance among its three main dimensions: infrastructure, services, and procedures and processes. This new edition of the toolkit provides an opportunity not only to reflect the changes in the trade environment and the need for additional features in the
- Infrastructure’s Role in Lowering Asia’s Trade Costs (Douglas Brooks and David Hummels, Asian Development Bank Institute, 2009)
Infrastructure is shown to be a cost-effective means of lowering trade costs and thereby promoting regional growth and integration. This book combines thematic and country
- Improving Trade and Transport for LLDCs (World Bank, 2008)
This publication is the World Bank’s contribution to the midterm review of the Almaty Programme of Action.
- Trade Facilitation – WTO Law and its revision to facilitate global trade in goods (Carolin Eve Bolhöfer, World Customs Journal, Volume 2, Number 1, 2008)
The article provides an overview of trade facilitation and the relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) law. After introducing the subject, the article describes what trade facilitation entails and demonstrates its economic impact. The focus turns to the current WTO trade facilitation negotiations. In order to assess the potential for revision, related panel and Appellate Body reports are analyzed and the contents of the relevant GATT Articles – namely Articles V, VIII and X of the GATT – are clarified. Furthermore, other multilateral trade agreements are looked at. It is shown that they contain certain principles that are likely to set a trend for matters to be regulated by the WTO. Finally, the article looks at some of the Members’ proposals submitted to the WTO Secretariat and gives an outlook on the future of the negotiations.
- ECE/ESCAP Joint Study on Developing Euro-Asian Transport Linkages (ECE and ESCAP, 2008)
- Improving Logistics Costs for Transportation and Trade Facilitation (Julio A. Gonzalez, Jose Luis Guasch and Tomas Serebrisky Policy Research Working Paper 4558, World Bank, 2008)
Access to basic infrastructure services – roads, electricity, water, sanitation – and the efficient provision of the services, is a key challenge in the fight against poverty. Many of the poor (and particularly the
- The Cost of Being Landlocked (World Bank, 2007)
- Transport infrastructure for transit trade of the landlocked countries in Central Africa (UNCTAD, 2007)
- Toward an Asian Integrated Network (ESCAP and Asian Institute of Transport Development, 2007)
- Central Asia: Increasing Gains from
Trade ThroughRegional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit (Asian Development Bank, 2006)
- Road network upgrading and overland trade expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank, 2006)
- Best practices in
managementof international trade corridors (World Bank, 2006)
- Connecting Central Asia: A Roadmap for Regional Cooperation (Asian Development Bank, 2006)
- Building a New Continent: A Regional Approach to Strengthening South American
Infrustructure(on the IIRSA Initiative, Inter-American Development Bank, 2006)
- Special and Differential Treatment in the Area of Trade Facilitation (Evdokia Moïsé, OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 32, 2006)
- The Transit Regime for Landlocked States (World Bank, 2006)
- Implementing a WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation: What Makes Sense? (J. Michael Finger and John S. Wilson, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3971, 2006)
Contrary to the prevailing view that the Doha negotiations have achieved little, the authors find that on trade facilitation much progress has been made. This is particularly true in regard to action by development banks and bilateral development agencies to meet client demand for assistance in reform. Active private sector participation has been an important factor driving change. Many agencies have been involved in this work; the authors find that their roles have been consistent with their comparative advantages. As to how the international community can best support continued progress, the authors conclude in favour of a cautious approach to the imposition of new WTO obligations in the area of trade facilitation. On the whole, this is the approach the WTO has taken, e.g., by limiting its negotiations on trade facilitation to several specific provisions of the GATT. The WTO can continue to function as a catalyst for reform; it is perhaps uniquely placed to relate the trade facilitation agenda to the overall trade agenda. On design and construction of the relevant infrastructures and capacities to spur development, the development institutions, including bilateral agencies, should continue to lead. The authors find little evidence to support the need for a comprehensive new “platform” or mechanism to channel trade-related aid as part of